Waterflood Design, Surveillance and Implementation

Waterflooding is by far the most commonly use improved (enhanced) recovery technique in the World for improving oil recovery factors. Understanding waterflood flow mechanics as well as operational factors is key to proper optimization. This is a case study based learning course.
Proper waterflooding management is different in:
• Conventional Oil Reservoirs,
• Higher Oil Viscosity Reservoirs
• Conventional Oil Reservoirs with Gas Caps
• Tight or Low Permeability Reservoirs
• Reservoirs with induced fractures
• Naturally fractured reservoir
Require different techniques. Therefore, the course addresses field examples in each case discusses practical surveillance.
Often the “operating” engineer has a rate and reserve forecast that often overestimates reservoir performance. This is generally a result of the reservoir/simulation engineer underestimates the severity of reservoir heterogeneities or operational (wellbore effects). There are numerous published analytical and simulation methods for the design of waterfloods; however, the literature has to a great extent been silent on reservoir surveillance to help monitor and improve existing waterfloods. This course tries to use field examples to surveil waterfloods, identify limiting factors and forecast and optimize waterfloods.

Content duration: (10:02 hours)

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    Chapter 1 – Introduction to Waterflood Design

    1.01 Intro to Waterflood Design & Workflows (20 min.)  Sample Lesson

    1.02 Finding Analogy (16 min.)

    1.03 Analogue Pools & Controlling Factors (24 min.) Quiz

    1.04 Production Profiles (20 min.) Quiz

    1.05 Field Example 2 - East Swan Hills (14 min.)

    1.06 Bubble Maps (12 min.) Quiz

    1.07 Gas Collapse and Fill-up (19 min.) Quiz

    1.08 The Effect of Depletion on Volumetric Sweep (11 min.) Quiz

    1.09 Building a Forecast on Excel (10 min.)

    Chapter 2 - Volumetric Sweep/Displacement Efficiency

    2.01 Volumetric Sweep (20 min.)

    2.02 Reservoir Controlling Factors Revisited (13 min.)

    2.03 Differences of Water Wet & Oil Wet Systems (17 min.)

    2.04 Sweep Efficiency (22 min.)

    Chapter 3 - Surveillance Techniques for Waterfloods

    3.01 Use of Bubble Maps to Estimate Reservoir Flow Mechanics (12 min.)

    3.02 Recovery Factor vs HCPVI Plots (23 min.) Quiz

    3.03 Measured Pressure Scatter (7 min.)

    3.04 Forecasting & Optimization (10 min.) Quiz

    Chapter 4 - Decline Analysis for Waterfloods

    4.01 Decline Analysis for Waterfloods (29 min.)

    4.02 Selection of Decline Correlation (14 min.) Quiz

    4.03 Decline Analysis Examples (27 min.)

    4.04 Recap Of Lessons So Far (16 min.)

    Chapter 5 - Waterflood Case Studies

    5.01 Decline Analysis Case Study - Wainwright Field (14 min.)

    5.02 Waterflood Response & Water Fencing Case Study - Keybob South Field (16 min.) Quiz

    5.03 Waterflood Response & Water Fencing Case Study - Keybob South Field Continued (14 min.)

    5.04 Waterflood Response & Water Fencing Case Study - Chauvin South Field (12 min.)

    5.05 Conformance Plots & Throughput Rate (17 min.) Quiz

    5.06 Hall Plots (16 min.) Quiz

    Chapter 6 - Waterflood & Injection Induced Fractures

    6.01 Injection Induced Fractures (16 min.) Quiz

    6.02 Analysis of Injection Pressures and Rates (23 min.)

    6.03 Example of Interference Tests in the Spraberry (11 min.)

    6.04 Fracture Length and Complexity (8 min.)

    6.05 Course Recap (19 min.) Quiz