Lesson Contents01. Lesson 1.1: Flowback & Early Time Production Data Analysis of Unconventional Reservoirs02. What is FBA?03. Why Perform FBA? - Background04. Why Perform FBA?05. Course Outline - Introduction06. Course Outline - Workflow for RTA of Flowback & Early Time Production Data07. Course Outline - Additional Workflow Examples08. Course Outline - Case Studies
01. Lesson 1.1: Flowback & Early Time Production Data Analysis of Unconventional ReservoirsHi I'm Chris Clarkson and I'll be presenting: Flowback and Early Time Production Data Analysis of Unconventional Reservoirs. This topic will be the subject of an upcoming Society of Petroleum Engineers Monograph on Hydraulic Fracturing.Hydraulic Fracturing: Fundamentals and Advancements. Jennifer Miskimins, Editor-in-Chief. 2019 795 pp.; Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-61399-719-2 The chapter will be co-authored by Jesse Williams Kovacs, or as the folks at SAGA like to say Jesse Williams "Flowbacks". So I'm going to start by answering a couple of questions.
02. What is FBA?First of all what is flowback analysis or FBA? Well simply stated flowback analysis is rate transient analysis of flowback data or that early time production data that's gathered immediately after a well is hydraulically fractured. So as such there's various inputs to the models that we need to consider such as the fluid production (water gas and oil rates), bottomhole flowing pressure, fluid properties (PVT). In some cases we require the number of fractures. Petrophysical properties such as reservoir porosity, saturation and initial pressures. In addition to this there's various data that we can use to supplement the analysis such as surveillance data collected during the hydraulic fracture stimulation and after. We can also use laboratory data, geomechanical data to constrain certain inputs, geochemical data etc.
03. Why Perform FBA? - BackgroundSo why would we perform flowback analysis? What's so important about analyzing this early time production data? Well I'm going to give you a little bit of background before I answer that question.
04. Why Perform FBA?So that leads us to why perform flowback analysis? Well, I would argue that it's a relatively inexpensive routine method that allows us to perform early hydraulic fracture characterization.
05. Course Outline - IntroductionSo with that I'd like to move on to the outline for the course. And as you'll see each of these different sections will be covered in different modules or sub modules in the course. We're going to start today with the introduction. And in the introduction we'll provide some very high level facts on unconventional reservoirs. Some definitions of unconventional reservoirs that we'll use in place and contexts what we'll cover in this course. We'll discuss reservoir and hydraulic fracture characterization methods. We'll see flowback analysis is one tool in our tool kit and is one tool in a suite of reservoir and hydraulic fracture characterization methods that we're going to cover. We'll then launch into a discussion of rate transient analysis of flowback in online production. So we'll distinguish flowback in online production, we'll show you some typical signatures for both of those. We'll talk a little bit about the RTA models that we use for model inversion to extract properties of interest from flowback data. And then that'll lead us to our problem statement. And I'll spend a bit of time at the end of this module talking about course learning objectives that will carry through the rest of the course.
06. Course Outline - Workflow for RTA of Flowback & Early Time Production Data"We'll then launch into a discussion of a workflow that we have used for quantitative rate transient analysis of flowback and early time production data. Each of these steps that are illustrated here will be the subject of separate modules. Steps #1 through #3 are all about assessing the data quality and viability so that we can determine whether or not we should even be performing a model based analysis. Step #4 is identifying flow regimes, a critical early step that allows us to select the model that's used for rate transient analysis. We'll then discuss in steps #5 through #6, the model inversion techniques where we are extracting information from the model for rate transient analysis. And then a critical step for flowback assessment is comparing the results of flowback in online production. We'll see that fracture properties are very dynamic. So there's a lot of information that can be gleaned from analyzing flowback and online results and then comparing the two.
07. Course Outline - Additional Workflow ExamplesNow in our workflow we will be using tight oil shale gas examples to illustrate each step. However we want to demonstrate that this workflow works for wells, in addition to the ones that are used as an example there. So we've got some additional workflow examples; a multi-fractured horizontal well in a shale oil reservoir and a multi-fractured horizontal well completed in a shale gas reservoir to provide supplemental examples. Again those will be separate modules for this course.
08. Course Outline - Case StudiesAnd then lastly and very importantly we have some case studies that we'll go through that are designed to address some of the biggest issues that are facing flowback analysis today.